David Risstrom - Greens Melbourne City Councillor 1999-2004
About this site 2011 Current News and Issues 100 Green Achievements David Risstrom's Progressive Internet Links
  2004 Through Green Coloured Glasses 100 More Green Achievements David Risstrom's Homepage

Thinking Environment Homepage

Email David Risstrom

David Risstrom News + Views Apr-Jun 09

David Risstrom's Senate Watch

100 Green Achievements

100 More Green Achievements

David's OnLine PhD - The Greens and the Planet's Future

David Risstrom's Articles, Essays and Speeches

David Risstrom's Media Releases

David Risstrom's Progressive Internet Links

Through Green Coloured Glasses 2004

Your Ideas and Priorities

Thinking Environment On Air

Greensforums

David Risstrom's Community Involvement

Victorian Local Government Elections 2008

Sustainability Game

Dave's Thoughts

Thank You To The Beautiful People

It's Not Easy Being Green

The Victorian Greens Homepage: Policies

The Australian Greens Charter


ARCHIVES BELOW

David Risstrom - Victorian Greens No. 1 Senate Candidate

Rosa the Policy Watchdog drives policy!

David Risstrom News + Views Oct:-Dec 07:Jul-Sep 07: Apr-Jun 07: Jan-Mar 07

David Risstrom News + Views: Oct-Dec 06: Jul-Sep 06: Apr-Jun 06: Jan-Mar 06

Rosa and Dave's News + Views: Oct-Dec 05: Jul-Sep 05; Apr-Jun 05; Jan-Mar 05

Rosa and Dave's News + Views Oct-Dec 2004: Jul-Sep 2004; Apr-Jun 2004; Jan-Mar 2004

Rosa and Dave's News + Views Oct-Dec 2003; Jul-Sep 2003; Apr-Jun 2003; Jan-Mar 2003

Rosa and Dave's News + Views 2002

Through Green Coloured Glasses 2003; 2002

David Risstrom's Community Involvement 2004-2001; 2001-1999; Pre-1999

Did Cr. Risstrom Deliver on His Promises for 2001-2004?; 1999-2001?

Victorian Local Government Elections 2008: 2005: 2004

 

 
CITY OF MELBOURNE PARTICIPATION IN 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
 
 

ACHIEVEMENT: Demonstrate the City of Melbourne's emerging international leadership in sustainable development.

TARGET DATE: September 2002 PROGRESS: Achieved.

DESCRIPTION: The City of Melbourne was an active participant in the Local Government Session of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. Lord Mayor John So and Cr. David Risstrom both presented to the session, with the Melbourne Principles for Sustainable Development being adopted by the session and ultimately presented the the major plenary on behalf of local government worldwide.

Detailed below are two paper taken by the City of Melbourne to the World Summit On Sustainable Development.

The first paper, Accelerating Sustainability Locally, outlines many of the internationally recognised sustainable development achievement made recently by the City of Melbourne. The paper was authored by Dr. Robyn Leeson and other members of her staff in the Environment Division of Melbourne City Council.

The second paper, Sustainability - Our Future Together, Prepared by the City of Melbourne on behalf of the Council of Capital City Lord Mayors, highlights the important role capital cities are playing in progressing the aims of sustainable development.

Both are available in PDF by clicking on their underlined title above, or in text below.

ACCELERATING SUSTAINABILITY LOCALLY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002 is an opportunity for the City of Melbourne to consolidate and communicate its views, while also highlighting the important role that it is playing in progressing the aims of sustainable development.

This paper will outline to Summit delegates and City of Melbourne stakeholders the following:
1. The City of Melbourne's position on key issues discussed by national and international communities in the lead up to the Summit, supported by practical examples of work undertaken at the City of Melbourne; and
2. The City of Melbourne's best practices and achievements in progressing sustainable development to date.

The City of Melbourne's key views are presented as areas for international action and national change in Australia:

Nationally

Institutionalise the role of local government in resource management, recognising that they play a major role in “on-the-ground" policy development and implementation.
Recognise the proper and appropriate roles of local governments in developing and delivering policy and resource. Support the implementation of those roles.
Popularise of existing tools such as environmental management systems (EMS), Local Agenda 21, Cities for Climate Protection™ (CCP™) and the
development of mechanisms for integration, leadership development and institutional sustainability.
Ensure that local government structures are focused correctly on the sustainable development vision and exert focus and resources.
Integration of environmental, economic and social approaches to local sustainability and development of partnerships across local community sectors.
The removal of barriers to sustainability, especially in terms of national competition policy and its undifferentiated impact on local communities, national resource pricing policies and the lack of institutional status of local governments.

Internationally

Develop frameworks for local governments to interact with each other internationally within the same institutions (such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation) and with a separate standing to nations.

Require international agencies and encourage nation states to directly engage with local governments in policy development and delivery.
Develop culturally sensitive tools and mechanisms that encourage sustainable development, especially within the context of developing countries. Support key organisations such as the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) to develop leading sustainability
programs internationally, which focus on direct implementation within a longer-term strategic framework.

The need to work co-operatively with developing countries to ensure that sustainable development is seen as a joint approach, requiring cities-to-cities networks and public / private partnerships.

Direct advocacy by cities at the international level, feeding directly into the decision-making processes.

The City of Melbourne has undertaken a number of key initiatives and actions to drive the agenda of sustainable development locally. Sustainability is the central goal of Council's long-term planning for the city and specific initiatives in key areas such as climate change and water conservation have been developed. Such steps have set the foundation for Melbourne to be considered a major centre for environmental business activity and a globally significant city.

Introduction

Local governments and civic leaders are committed to playing a positive and meaningful role at the United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 and to working towards creating sustainable cities and communities. Significant progress towards sustainability has been made at the local level in places where local governments have acted on the goals and targets outlined in Agenda 21, the Rio Conventions, the Habitat Agenda and the Millennium Declaration. It is vital to recognise and tap this great potential at local level to accelerate the implementation of sustainable development.

The City of Melbourne is taking an active role by developing both a broad approach to sustainability policy and implementing many practical activities that demonstrate that progress is possible. The Melbourne Principles it has adopted are a long-term framework for the sustainable future of all cities and the result of a cross-sectoral international consultation effort.

The City of Melbourne's primary aim is to become a thriving and sustainable city through the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, social equity and environmental quality. It has contributed actively to national and international discussions in the lead up to the Summit and intends to continue its contribution to the sustainable development agenda at the Summit and beyond.

This paper will outline to Summit delegates and Melbourne residents the following:
1. The City of Melbourne's position on key questions in the sustainable development agenda (such as the role of local government as an agent of change); and
2. The City of Melbourne's best practices and achievements in progressing sustainable development to date

A. City of Melbourne's responses to international and national positions

In this section, the City of Melbourne presents its views on some of the key issues being discussed by the national and international communities on sustainable development in the lead up to the Summit.

How can local government be strengthened as a key delivery agent of sustainable development?

In Australia: formally institutionalise the role of local government in resource management activities, recognising its major role in developing and implementing “on-the-ground" policy. On one hand, institutional arrangements between the three levels of government (federal, state and local) in Australia have proven a significant roadblock for progress on sustainable development. This is inherent in the federal nature of Australian governance, as legislative, regulatory and other legal powers are divided among the different government levels in varied and often changing ways. In some states, such as New South Wales, local governments have significant land use and development control, which is not the case in other states.

On the other hand, different political allegiances and the context of policy-making have also led to variations in legal powers. For example, state governments have taken control of major development proposals from the local authority in key cities, as they consider the issue to be of statewide concern.

Victoria Metropolitan Melbourne City of Melbourne Australia
The City of Melbourne is the focus for finance, retail, commerce, tourism, culture and entertainment in the state of Victoria, Australia. Melbourne is an outward-looking city, projecting into the Asia-Pacific region and is home to many international companies, peak bodies and government agencies.

The City of Melbourne believes that compelling evidence now exists that local governments' role in managing natural resources is sufficient to require redesign of these institutional arrangements. This redesign should focus on both providing for appropriate legal powers and the mechanisms to achieve their implementation. The City of Melbourne considers that there are fewer institutional impediments to influencing the social capital component of sustainability. In Victoria, local governments are legislatively empowered to plan and co-ordinate services, such as health, education, welfare and community services to meet local needs.

Acknowledging and working proactively within the current institutional arrangements enhance local government's influence. The City of Melbourne has developed The Social Planning Framework in response to the need to build community capacity, to plan, understand and respond to community and social issues, and to be accountable in terms of social impact and expenditure and valuing the integration of social, economic and environmental objectives. This framework enables the City of Melbourne to ensure a “whole-of-community" approach, which includes planning in partnership with community, service providers, other local governments and relevant government.

Case Study: Growing Green
The City of Melbourne's key strategic document, City Plan 2010, takes up the sustainable development challenge, outlining Melbourne's goal to become a “thriving and sustainable city". City Plan 2010 defines sustainability as the “simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, social equity and environmental quality".

The City of Melbourne manages parkland “in trust" for today's community and future generations. Its management is underpinned by the principle of “intergenerational equity", meaning that today's decisions must not diminish opportunities available to future generations. All levels of governments in Australia formally committed to these principles in 1993.

Growing Green aims to involve the community in identifying and achieving practical ways of effectively managing the city's parklands over the long-term. Growing Green will focus on environmental management practices for all parks, open spaces and recreational facilities under City of Melbourne's control including: major and minor parks, gardens, sports reserves, creeks and waterways, street trees, road reserves, sports centres, pavilions, public toilets, park furniture and depots. Growing Green will provide a practical decision-making framework and present recommendations for specific actions to help Council achieve more environmentally responsible management of its parks, gardens and recreational facilities over the next 50 years. It will also provide a basis for monitoring and reporting improvements in environmental performance. The specific issues and recommendations are presented within the broader context of Melbourne's goal of sustainability and are assessed against Triple Bottom Line objectives.

Internationally: develop frameworks for local governments to interact with each other within the same institutions such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation and with a separate standing to nations. It is critical that local government is legitimised internationally in the same way it has been domestically. It is evident that this is already occurring. The Australian Local Government Association (ALGA) is on the National Delegation to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, a position not available 10 years ago at the Rio Earth Summit.

Developing international networks will involve support from major institutions and individual nations. Some structural reasons, such as major institutions being funded by nations, may make this difficult. These networks provide Melbourne with a direct role in international affairs, and, provided that they focus on delivering real value, have the capacity to become more significant over the next few years.

How can co-operation between spheres of government be increased?

In Australia: recognise the proper and appropriate roles of local governments in developing and delivering policy and resource those roles.

Local governments are involved in consulting on a wide range of areas. Consultations are, however, often ad hoc or driven by a “respond-to-draft" approach. Paradoxically, local governments have much to offer on policy development precisely because they are so involved in a day-to-day way. Mechanisms need to be created to ease the difficult set of roles in the political context of the states and the federal government, having their own roles and responsibilities for wider geographic regions. These mechanisms could include formal involvement in policy creation (not just consultation as part of the stakeholders), focused resourcing of implementation plans and equal weighting for approaches at federal, state and local government forums.

Case Study: Cities for Climate Protection™ (CCP ™)
Cities for Climate Protection™ (CCP™) is an international climate change program developed by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) to empower local governments to cut greenhouse gas emissions. CCP™ provides local governments with a strategic milestone based framework that requires participants to:
1. establish an emissions inventory for the council and community;
2. set an emissions reduction goals;
3. develop and adopt a local greenhouse action plan to achieve goals;
4. implement action plan; and
5. monitor the report on emissions and implementation progress.

To maximise the program's potential this five milestone framework is combined with technical support and training workshops; political and media support; access to a range of additional assistance packages; and multiple networking opportunities across local government and other potential greenhouse abatement partners. The City of Melbourne was the first Australian Council to achieve all Five Milestones.

CCP™ is the only local government program delivered by a local government association that can demonstrate greenhouse gas abatement by its participant councils.

More than 440 local governments from around the world participate in CCP,™ with campaigns at different stages in Australia, Canada, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. As of June 2002, 149 Australian councils, covering more than 60 per cent of the nation's population, were actively pursuing greenhouse gas abatement.

An active and powerful leader in this program, the City of Melbourne has achieved key goals quickly and efficiently while looking for further opportunities to extend the program such as the Toronto Declaration and hosting a twinning meeting of the Asia Pacific region. More information at www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/greenhouse.

Internationally: require international agencies and encourage nation states to directly engage with local governments in both policy development and delivery.

This extends the principle that those that implement policy should be actively involved in its development. Local governments need to be involved in creating policy solutions on a wide range of issues, particularly global resource issues such as oceans, climate change and biodiversity. Presently, this tends to occur in particular locations around particular issues, which means that only "crisis-driven" situations are being implemented.

What are the new mechanisms needed to support sustainable development at the local level?

In Australia: popularisation of existing tools such as environmental management systems (EMS), Local Agenda 21, Cities for Climate Protection™ along with development of mechanisms for integration, leadership development and institutional sustainability.

Practical methods are required to implement the sustainable development agenda. These need to be developed within the local government community as well as within the context of local governance. The diversity of these contexts means it is likely that a range of tools will be needed. The City of Melbourne has been proactive in this approach, and, particularly with the development of the Triple Bottom Line Toolkit, has released a set of tools that can be adapted across local governments around Australia and, indeed, around the world.

Similarly, local governments need more practical mechanisms to provide the kind of organisational stability that enhances local governments role in sustainable development. These mechanisms will:
• increase the policy mechanisms to integrate social, environmental and economic elements of sustainable development;
• develop leadership potential at senior and middle-management level in local governments; and
• deepen the institutional sustainability of local governments through culture change approaches that are mainstream, systemic and realised through effective structures.

Case Study: Sustainable Melbourne Fund
The City of Melbourne has allocated $A5 million to establish the Sustainable Melbourne Fund. The fund finances projects that improve environmental sustainability within the municipality and aim to provide environmental, financial and social benefits.

The fund differs from typical investment funds. It aims to be self-sustaining economically and invest in developments, which promote and implement the principles of sustainability and return a financial gain.

The fund will invest $A5 million into three types of projects that promote, enable and advance sustainable development. These include - Alliance, Sponsored and Savings projects. Investment will be staged, with $A1.5 million invested per annum over three years and $A500,000 kept in reserve as a risk mitigation control. The fund will invest in a maximum of 30 projects over the three years, with a maximum of $A500,000 per project. All financial returns from the projects will be fed back to the fund and reinvested so the fund is self-sustaining.

The chosen investment vehicle is a fixed unit trust with legal title of the units held by the Melbourne City Council. An Independent Board of Trustees has the overall management authority and decision-making power.

Internationally: Development of culturally sensitive tools and mechanisms that encourage sustainable development, especially within a developing country context.

How can local government accelerate sustainable development and build a culture of sustainability?

In Australia: ensure that local government structures are focused on the vision for sustainable development. This means positioning sustainable development as the key priority for all local communities and ensuring that local governments put the concept into practice.

There has been a lag between the structures of local government and the visions that local governments have increasingly articulated since the early 1990s. This has meant few resources for exactly those sustainable development activities that communities have requested of their local governments. Some councils have taken up the challenge and are restructuring their operations to achieve a more effective focus on sustainable development.

Councils are also focusing on “the big picture" and ensuring resources are channelled into achieving that vision. The City of Melbourne is doing this in a range of areas, while also ensuring that its day-to-day activities meet the present needs of residents and ratepayers.

Case Study: City of Melbourne Zero Net Emissions by 2020
Climate Neutral City by 2020 is the City of Melbourne's plan for achieving zero net emissions across the city by 2020. Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation's (APEC) Energy Working Group has endorsed preparation of the plan, which is co-sponsored by the United States and Canada. The plan involves stimulating a significant increase in investment and use of renewable energy and energy efficient power, refurbishing and rebuilding many of the commercial and residential buildings to increase the energy efficiency, and some sequestration through forestry programs. The plan aims to turn a serious threat to Melbourne's economy and way of life into an opportunity for economic growth, environmental improvements and social cohesion by influencing the billions of dollars of mainstream business investment that will take place in buildings and plant/power generation over the next two decades, using market mechanisms and appropriate regulations. It envisages commercial, industrial and residential investment in superior energy efficient design. The net result of such investment will reduce operating costs and enhance city business competitiveness, rather than adding to the cost of doing business in Melbourne.

Case Study: United Nations Global Compact
In 2001 the City of Melbourne became the first city in the world to engage with the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). The Committee for Melbourne and the City of Melbourne have since developed a partnership project to develop the UNGC model as an international benchmark for the relationship between business, government and community. Actions will include refining the model, developing a full communication package and preparing a training/briefing package.

The partnership will conduct a one-day UNGC stakeholder seminar in September 2002. The seminar aims to clarify and move forward the complex and crowded issue of corporate responsibility. Stakeholders will include companies, government, non-government organisations, universities, ethical investment funds and developers of socially responsible models/filters.•Internationally:support key organisations such as ICLEI to develop leading sustainability programs, which focus on direct implementation within a longer-term strategic framework.

Australian companies having engaged the UNGC as of May 1, 2002, include:
• Committee for Melbourne;
• City of Melbourne;
• Shell Australia;
• BP Australasia;
• Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu;
• Rio Tinto Limited;
• Daimler Chrysler;
• Docklands Authority;
• Allens Arthur Robinson;
• RMIT University;
• Monash University;
• The University of Melbourne;
• Now For Future;
• Reputation Qest;
• Jack & Robert Smorgon Families Foundation;
• ES Group Ventures and ES Group Trading;
• Global Renewables;
• Methodist Ladies' College and
• Ruyton Girls School.

Internationally: support key organisations such as ICLEI to develop leading sustainability programs, which focus on direct implementation within a longer-term strategic framework.

The City of Melbourne has played a core role in supporting international organisations and seeks to continue and expand this role. As the inaugural host for ICLEI in the Australia and New Zealand region, the City of Melbourne has worked closely with ICLEI to deliver projects and programs internally for the city's benefit. These programs include Cities for Climate Protection,™ Water Campaign™ and the Triple Bottom Line Toolkit, which have widespread implications for the local government sector.

What are the most pressing issues nationally and internationally?

In Australia: integration of environmental, economic and social approaches to local sustainability, along with development of cross-sectoral partnerships in local communities.

Integration across many areas of life is crucial to much of councils' work. It is also a basic requirement for effective approaches to sustainable development. Integration is vital if councils are to assess whether, as is likely, they are going backwards in key environmental indicators. The City of Melbourne has already discussed the need for tools to achieve integration and its role in meeting this need. There is also a need to integrate the many programs that councils adopt across the country so that they are not trying to meet many different program needs simultaneously.

Another global focus for sustainable development is the notion of cross-sectoral partnerships. They will play a major role in the Summit as a focus for implementing the Agenda 21 vision, primarily because they allow different stakeholders to use their strengths for the collective benefit of sustainability. Local governments are accustomed to acting as facilitators and managers of different stakeholders and interests, and therefore have a major role to play in this important issue.

Partnerships across sectors play a significant role in creating an inclusive and socially robust community. Within the community health and welfare sectors, programs have been designed and implemented in response to a single issue leading to an increasingly fragmented and partialised-service response. The City of Melbourne supports and contributes to a number of cross-sectoral partnerships. These partnerships have allowed Council to engage with business and encourage them to contribute to the provision of social services and thereby demonstrate good corporate behaviour.

Case Study: City of Melbourne Triple Bottom Line Project
The City of Melbourne now routinely assesses proposals for environmental, economic and social outcomes. Staff use checklists, templates and guidelines to determine the impacts proposals make in these areas. These are then quantified and qualified to enable councillors to make informed decisions about capital works submissions, proposals going to council and corporate planning.

The City of Melbourne has worked in partnership with ICLEI to develop these tools into a Triple Bottom Line Toolkit. Focusing on specific operational areas, the toolkit is available free of charge to other councils, which can use it as a reference point for ideas and information. Other councils can also adapt it for their own purpose and needs.

Triple Bottom Line emerged from the business sector and shifts the focus from the purely financial bottom line to encompass environmental, economic and social performance. It can be used as a vehicle to achieve sustainable development and set the agenda for continual improvements in quality of life.

Triple Bottom Line is being debated extensively both in the private and public sectors, which are grappling with what it means and how it is best applied. Local expectations are compounded by the demands of the global community. “.. the debate internationally is not about whether one should report on sustainability but how." International standards, such as the Global Reporting Initiative are available to guide and focus organisations to produce fuller reports. This entails transparent reporting on diverse and meaningful indicators, which will help to express community values, provide wider criteria to evaluate councils' performance and further develop trust in public institutions. They will enable councils to measure progress and apply transparent accountability. Reporting will also allow councils to improve decision making.

Triple Bottom Line can be applied across council activities as a reporting device, for example a means of presenting information in annual reports, and/or an approach to decision making to understand economic, environmental and social implications. Triple Bottom Line is seen as core business at the City of Melbourne and is being used as both a reporting device and an approach to decision making.

Case Study: City of Melbourne Triple Bottom Line Project
The Toolkit was launched at the Local Government Managers Association conference on May 14 in Sydney, Australia, and is available on line at http://www.iclei.org/anz/tbl/tbl.htm

The tools will be continually reviewed and updated.

It is hoped that councils, which are applying and developing their own tools, will add theirs, along with their experiences, to the website. Organisations around the world have shown interest and ICLEI is keen to ensure that co-operative approaches to this work turn into practical actions for local governments.
Footnote 1: “A Framework for Public Environmental Reporting – An Australian Approach,” National Heritage Trust

Case Study: Reporting on Social Performance
The City of Melbourne is developing a suite of social indicators for city residents, visitors and workers that fit within the Social Performance (residents and visitors) Indicator Set. Components include:
• average number of infants receiving primary immunisations as a proportion of all infants due for the calendar year;
• rate of participation engagement of residents in City of Melbourne funded community and cultural events and activities;
• number and percentage of visitors who feel safe in the CBD; and
• a social well being index.

The Social Well Being Index is an innovative, valid, reliable, practical and scientifically sound measure of social well being that captures and tracks levels of performance against city priorities to benchmark and improve achievement. The key areas are: work injury; income and wealth; housing; health and social health; education; cultural and recreational activities and gambling. The Well-being Index can also:
• be calculated annually;
• potentially benchmark the index against other municipalities or the State; and
• reflect the contribution and impact of visitors in addition to residents.

Case Study: Commercial Buildings Partnership
The City of Melbourne has more than five million square metres of office floor space, with the commercial sector being the greatest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the municipality. The Commercial Buildings Partnership between the City of Melbourne, the Victorian State Government and peak business body the Property Council of Australia is helping to bridge the gap between building owners and tenants that often result in energy inefficiencies.

Twelve premium CBD office buildings completed Stage 1 of the program. These buildings represented nearly 700,000m2 of net lettable area office space that is in excess of 10 per cent of the available office space in the CBD (2000). Potential annual savings for these buildings were identified as 22,500 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, almost $A1 million of energy cost savings and 15,500 megawatt hours of electricity.

The program targets property owners and portfolio managers rather than building managers to ensure funds are committed and action is expedient to complete energy-saving projects. High-profile, large buildings such as the “top 100" are a priority on the basis of return on investment, with additional benefits derived by working with the owners and management groups of these buildings.

Projects that will result in major emissions reductions through joint initiatives of building management with tenants also will be pursued.

Successful projects at a few high-profile buildings will lead the way for the commercial building sector to head towards sustainable operation. This would need to be coupled with other activities that increase demand for sustainable buildings. The degree to which best-practice energy management is regarded as a valued quality in the commercial property sector is rated as a critical success factor. This will require further market research into the needs of the sector and development of new strategies involving multiple drivers based on environmental, social and financial factors.

Internationally: The need to work co-operatively with developing countries to ensure that sustainable development is seen as a joint approach, requiring cities-to-cities networks and public and private partnerships. It is expected that the next decade of sustainable development will be focused on action through partnerships.

The City of Melbourne is looking to further strengthen some key international frameworks with which it participates, including:
• Business Partnership Cities (BPC);
• APEC;
• Sister Cities; and
• ICLEI networks.

These frameworks provide a direct insight into international relations and relationships that will have a major impact over the years. As always, they require attention to the real value being extracted from them, but in terms of learning, developing partnerships, creating staff development opportunities, and positioning the city for future developments, these networks already provide many benefits. They are the basis for the city's international implementation partnerships.

What are the current gaps in the debate?

In Australia: removal of barriers to sustainability, especially in terms of national competition policy and its undifferentiated impact on local communities, national resource pricing policies and the lack of institutional status of local governments. Alas, a current gap in the debate is the debate itself, particularly in the senior decision-making spheres of Australian public life. Too little of the intellectual debate focuses on these barriers and practical ways to reduce them. It would be a major step forwards if we ensured that there were specific places for the debate to be enacted.

The focus in Australia should be on removing the barriers so that the long-term, innovative and strategic approaches to sustainable development that abound in local governments are allowed to flourish. Undiscussed barriers so far include the impact of competition policy on the Triple Bottom Line, especially in the capacity for local communities to identify social elements to their purchasing policies. Inclusion of such matters is possible and is now more timely than ever. Similarly, under-pricing of natural resources, a key undercurrent to the waste management debate, continues to make the economics of recycling (one part of the Triple Bottom Line) a significant disincentive for continued expansion into new products and new regions.

Internationally: Direct advocacy by cities at the international level, feeding directly into the decision-making processes.
Cities are represented by many different voluntary associations and professional organisations at the international level, including the International Union for Local Authorities and ICLEI. Cities rarely get a chance to advocate directly for themselves, except through these organisations. This is a question that requires solutions both in the host nations and in the international agencies and organisations that create and implement sustainable development policy.

What would be the best possible outcomes of the Summit for local government and the City of Melbourne?

1. National agreements on sustainable development visions, approaches, targets, resources and timelines;
2. Close alignment of the views of the Australian National Delegation with the Australian Local Government Association and the City of Melbourne on the issues that arise throughout the Summit, but particularly on the above issues;
3. Development of communities of interest by the City of Melbourne with other cities throughout the world, but especially relating to existing international networks (Sister Cities, BPC, ICLEI) and in the Asia Pacific region;
4. Further development of the City of Melbourne's leadership role in sustainability in Australia and the region through a key role in the Local Government Session at Johannesburg and the relationship to the Australian National Delegation; and
5. Specifically, marketing of the City of Melbourne's achievements and further learning of world's best practice in climate, water and triple bottom line methodologies internationally and at all levels of government.

Internationally, ICLEI has noted that the outcomes of the Johannesburg Summit must recognise:
• the importance of good local governance in creating sustainable communities;
• the urban dimension of sustainable development and the interdependence of urban and rural areas;
• the role of local governments in developing partnerships for sustainable development, working with national governments, international agencies, and civil society; and
• opportunities to promote and encourage diversified action at the local level.

B. The City of Melbourne ’s leadership as a sustainable city

The City of Melbourne is taking many important steps towards becoming a more sustainable city. These range from broad policy to significant targets such as for a 30 per cent reduction in 1996 levels of equivalent carbon dioxide (eCO2 ) by 2010 for Council operations and a 20 per cent target for the community. The city is on track for a 25 per cent reduction in corporate emissions by June 30, 2002.

Adoption and Promotion of the Toronto Declaration

The City of Melbourne has officially adopted the Toronto Declaration, which recognises the political statement made at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit for the need to reduce CO2 levels by at least 50 per cent to avert significant human-induced climate change. The City of Melbourne, with ICLEI Australia-New Zealand, took the Toronto Declaration to other Australian and New Zealand cities.

City of Melbourne Zero Net Emissions by 2020
The City of Melbourne has developed a strategy to achieve zero net CO2 emissions by the year 2020 as part of a wider international APEC-backed research project. The plan involves stimulating a significant increase in investment and use of renewable energy and energy-efficient power. Commercial and residential buildings would be refurbished and rebuilt to increase energy efficiency, while there would be some sequestration through forestry programs. The plan aims to turn a serious threat to Melbourne's economy and way of life into an opportunity for economic growth, environmental improvements and social cohesion by influencing the billions of dollars of mainstream business investment that will take place in buildings and plant/power generation over the next two decades, using market mechanisms and appropriate regulations. It envisages commercial, industrial and residential investment in superior energy efficient design. Rather than adding to the cost of doing business in Melbourne, the net result of such investment will reduce operating costs and enhance city business competitiveness.

Sustainable Melbourne Fund
The City of Melbourne has allocated $A5 million to establish the Sustainable Melbourne Fund. The fund finances projects that improve environmental sustainability within the municipality. The fund is administered by a board of trustees that helps decide successful applications from businesses and individuals.

Sustainability as Central Theme in Strategic Planning Document
The City of Melbourne's major planning strategy, City Plan 2010, adopts sustainability as its primary theme. Council's operational policies, therefore, take into account their contribution to environmental, social and economic sustainability.

Triple Bottom Line Reporting and Decision Making
The City of Melbourne has formally adopted Triple Bottom Line reporting, which takes into account the environmental, economic and social consequences of proposed decisions. Initially, environmental assessment reports were provided for selected Council reports. These reports assessed the impact of a decision on energy use, waste generation, water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. Templates have been completed and staff training undertaken to implement Triple Bottom Line reporting across all levels of Council.

Council has also committed to reporting on environmental, social and economic targets in its Annual Report. The Triple Bottom Line indicators are concerned with the sustainability of the City, not just Council activities. Social sustainability indicators measure elements such as social well-being, city safety and community participation and engagement.

Renewable Energy for City Market
The City of Melbourne is placing a $A2 million photovoltaic array on the roof of the local market, with the assistance of a $A750,000 grant from the Federal Government's Australian Greenhouse Office. Queen Victoria Market is one of the City's leading tourist attractions, so a large number of people will be able to see the benefits of renewable energy. About 2000 square metres of photovoltaic panels will produce 270 megawatt hours of electricity at the market. The project will decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 309 tonnes per year.

Green Power for Street Lighting
The City of Melbourne has agreed to buy 30 per cent of its electricity for street lighting from renewable sources, with at least 10 per cent sourced from wind power. Council is also buying 20 per cent of electricity for its buildings from Victorian wind-generated sources. The renewable energy purchases collectively equate to 6.2 gigawatt hours consumption of renewable energy, reducing emissions by around 8500 tonnes per annum. The purchase of wind-power generated in regional Victoria supports the economy and generates jobs in those regions.

In line with its Corporate Energy Policy, the City of Melbourne has committed to reduce energy consumed in Council buildings by 20 per cent by 2005 (based on 1996 levels). This financial year Council has a record $A166,000 to spend on energy-reduction projects. These will include energy audits, lighting upgrades and control systems, solar hot water services, pool blankets and more efficient motor control systems.

Lighting Strategy
The City of Melbourne has recently completed a lighting strategy that will be progressively implemented. The strategy includes:
• public light retrofitting;
• co-operation with businesses and individuals to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their lighting, with about 20 per cent decrease in energy consumption expected; and
• 60 per cent reduction in night glow from wasted light.

Commercial Building Partnership
The City of Melbourne has more than 5 million square metres of office floor space, with the commercial sector being the greatest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the municipality. The Commercial Buildings Partnership between the City of Melbourne, the Victorian State Government and peak business body the Property Council of Australia will help bridge the gap between building owners and tenants that often results in energy inefficiencies.

Melbourne as Host City of ICLEI Australia/New Zealand
Melbourne City Council facilitated the establishment of the Australia/ New Zealand office of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) for Melbourne during 1999. The partnership between the City of Melbourne and ICLEI confirmed the leadership role of Melbourne as a capital city committed to environmental management. The relationship with ICLEI has produced mutual benefits by ensuring good ideas and actions continue to be generated and implemented.

Water Campaign™
Melbourne, with four other Australian cities, is piloting ICLEI's Water Campaign™ in the region, in partnership with the Melbourne Water Corporation. The city will achieve milestone three (ie development of an action plan) by December 2002. The City of Melbourne is determined to become a leader in the field of local water management as it has become in local greenhouse action.

The City of Melbourne's parks and gardens consume about 1.4 million litres of water annually. Council's Parks and Recreation Branch is developing a plan to reduce the use of potable (drinkable) water for irrigating our parks and gardens by pursuing options such as better water management, improved horticultural practices such as the use of mulching, and researching the potential to use recycled water. As a pilot, the Reclaimed Water Demonstration Project has been jointly developed by Melbourne Water, the City of Melbourne and State Government Department of Infrastructure to demonstrate technology available to reclaim high-quality water from local sewers.

After treatment, this water can be used for a variety of purposes such as irrigating urban parks. On-site processing reduces the cost of transporting reclaimed water, which limits the use of such water potentially available from end-of-line treatment facilities at Carrum and Werribee. On-site water recycling to irrigate parklands is a more sustainable way of managing water resources and will contribute to Melbourne Water's target of 20 per cent water recycling by 2010. If it can be successfully applied in the longer term, this technology will make a significant contribution to the City of Melbourne's environmental program. The quality of water derived as a consequence of applying this technology would establish a national and international environmental precedent and could potentially be expanded for use throughout parkland around Melbourne.

Growing Green
The City of Melbourne is developing a 50-year plan for the environmentally responsible management of its parks, gardens and recreational facilities. It aims to improve biodiversity, energy and water efficiency and add to enjoyment of the city.

Inner City Social Housing Company
The City of Melbourne has established the Inner City Social Housing Company and founded a Trust Fund to develop social housing, maintain housing diversity and assist people with housing needs. The Company has adopted policies that will ensure that all stock is adaptable, accessible for people with a disability and environmentally sustainable. As the founding organisation, the City of Melbourne established an expertise-based board of directors representing all aspects of the development and housing industries.

World Health Organisation Accreditation as a Safe Community
The City of Melbourne has a major role as a leader in city safety, being the first capital city in Australia, and only the third in the world, to gain international accreditation with the World Health Organisation (WHO) in April 2000 as a designated Safe Community.

To celebrate this achievement, the City of Melbourne organised and hosted the three-day WHO Safe Communities International Symposium, which focused on Community Safety in Major Urban Environments.

The symposium, at Melbourne Town Hall, attracted more than 70 delegates. Speakers represented not just local government but law enforcement agencies, business and retail communities, academia and health and safety organisations. Glasgow, Stockholm, Johannesburg, Melbourne and Sydney were among the cities profiled.

Conference Sponsorship
The City of Melbourne strategically sponsors conferences that stimulate environmental responsibility. One such conference, the United Nations Environment Program Financial Services Conference in February 2000, has stimulated continued interest in the finance sector. Hosted by the Victorian Environment Protection Authority, the conference was designed to increase the adoption of sustainable development and environmentally sound business practices in the finance sector. Speakers included representatives from the UNEP, BP Amoco, Deutsche Bank, Swiss Re, Price Waterhouse Coopers and Barclays Bank.

Metropolitan Environment Forum
The City of Melbourne established the Melbourne Metropolitan Environment Forum (MEF) in April 2000 to improve co-operation between local authorities and create dialogue among active individuals in local government and the non-government sector. This forum of local governments and environment and community organisations will ensure democracy is not put as secondary to environmental sustainability.

First Victorian City with Waste Wise Accreditation
The City of Melbourne was the first Victorian authority to achieve Waste Wise Accreditation, the highest level of waste efficiency regionally. As a member of the Western Regional Waste Management Group, the city is starting a study of integrated waste management by co-operating with other councils so that waste reduction recycling and re-use can be achieved on a larger scale.

C. Showcase for Melbourne ’s growing environmental management sector.

With the City of Melbourne being a major centre for environmental business activity, Council believes Melbourne can be globally significant in the development of environment services and management businesses. It has demonstrated its credentials as a leader in sustainability through internal programs aimed at educating its own staff and also external business partnerships. It partnered RMIT University Centre for Design to develop, print and distribute Melbourne Green Map, which helps residents make greener lifestyle choices. More information at www.melbournegreenmap.org

Melbourne is also home to seven world-class universities, all offering expertise in environmental research and development. Of particular note is RMIT University's leading Centre for Sustainability.

The City of Melbourne and ICLEI worked in collaboration to produce the Sustainable Business Directory that aims to showcase Melbourne sustainable business capabilities and growing strengths to the Asia Pacific region and the world. This innovative directory is also a practical resource for local businesses and individuals seeking advice, support, technical assistance and hardware to help make their business and homes more environmentally sustainable. More information at www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/sustainable business

The City of Melbourne will continue to support the establishment of new environment services and management businesses, through its Small Business Development Program.
In the past 18 months, Council has supported new businesses including:
• Enviro Bins Victoria, a company that provides a fully captive and mobile water recycling cleaning service for domestic refuse bins, based on total recycling of washings to be retained for filtration, with the exclusive use of biodegradable chemicals.
• Sustainable Energy Foundation, an association that promotes sustainable development.
• Sustainable Investment Research Institute, which has developed a comprehensive socially responsible investment database. The group profiles, analyses and assesses companies on their sustainability performance and offers new and innovative investment products and services.
• Ethical Investment Company of Australia provides ethical-only financial planning and investment services to individuals and corporations.

D. Recommendations

Key recommendations for change and the City of Melbourne's desired
outcomes from the United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development include:
a) National agreement on sustainable development visions, approaches, targets, resources and timelines.
b) Close alignment of the views of the Australian National Delegation with the ALGA and the City of Melbourne on the issues arising throughout the Summit, especially on the issues described in this paper.
c) Development of communities of interest by the City of Melbourne with other cities throughout the world, particularly relating to existing international networks (APEC, Sister cities, BPC, ICLEI) and in the Asia Pacific region.
d) Further development of the City of Melbourne's leadership role in sustainability in Australia and the region through a key role in the Local Government Session at Johannesburg and the relationship to the Australian National Delegation.
e) Marketing of the City of Melbourne's achievements and further learning of world's best practice in climate, water and Triple Bottom Line methodologies internationally and at all levels of government.
f) Recognition of the importance of good local governance in creating sustainable communities.
g) Recognition of the urban dimension of sustainable development and the interdependence of urban and rural areas.
h) Recognition of the role of local governments in developing partnerships
for sustainable development, working with national governments, international agencies, and civil society.
i) Development of the opportunities to promote and encourage diversified action at the local level.

•The City of Melbourne wishes to acknowledge the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives assistance in preparing this position paper.

SUSTAINABILITY - OUR FUTURE TOGETHER

Australian Capital Cities – Progressing the aims of Sustainable Development
World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002. Prepared by the City of Melbourne on behalf of the Council of Capital City Lord Mayors.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development (the Summit) is an opportunity for the Australian Council of Capital City Lord Mayors (CCCLM) to consolidate and communicate its views, and highlight the important role that Australian capital cities are playing in progressing the aims of sustainable development.

This paper examines the CCCLM's response to the key issues discussed by national and international communities in the lead up to the Summit. The CCCLM's views are supported by practical examples from the cities and followed by an analysis of the unique role of the capital city and it's opportunities and constraints with regard to sustainable development.

The CCCLM's key views are presented as areas for international action and national change in Australia:

Nationally: Institutionalise the role of local government in resource management activities, recognising the major role that local governments play in “on the ground" policy development and implementation.

Recognise the proper and appropriate roles of local governments in the development and delivery of policy and resource and support the implementation of those roles.

Popularise the use of existing tools such as environmental management systems, Local Agenda 21, Cities for Climate Protection and facilitate the development of mechanisms for integration, leadership development and institutional sustainability

Ensure that local government structures are focused correctly on the sustainable development vision and exert focus and resources.

Integrate environmental, economic and social approaches to local sustainability and development of cross-sectoral partnerships in local communities.

Remove barriers to sustainability, especially in terms of national competition policy and its undifferentiated impact on local communities, national resource pricing policies and the lack of institutional status of local governments.

Internationally: Develop frameworks for local governments to interact with each other internationally within the same institutions (such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation) and with a separate standing to nations.

Require international agencies and encourage nation states to directly engage with local governments in both policy development and delivery.

Develop culturally sensitive tools and mechanisms that encourage sustainable development, especially within a developing country context.

Support key organisations such as ICLEI to develop leading sustainability programs internationally, which focus on direct implementation within a longer-term strategic framework.

Work co-operatively with developing countries to ensure that sustainable development is seen as a joint approach, requiring cities to cities networks and public/private partnerships.

Direct advocacy by cities at the international level, which feeds directly into the decision-making processes.

Australian capital cities can play a key role through demonstrating cross-sectoral partnerships and building relationships with state governments and other local governments within Australia and the Asia Pacific region. The primary constraints to capital cities in progressing sustainable development are political misunderstanding, differing budget responsibilities, limited regulatory powers and potential competition between the capital cities for sustainable industries.

The CCCLM is able to play a leadership role in sustainable development through various mechanisms. Building relationships centred on sustainability with cities in the developing and developed countries, for example. Strategic approaches to the Commonwealth government can further support this role.

Australian capital city profiles

Brisbane: Covering around 1,367 square kilometres, the City of Brisbane is the capital city of Queensland and Australia's largest municipality. In managing this dynamic city of 863,769 residents, the Council delivers core local government services such as water and sewerage, public transport, urban management and city administration. It also focuses on issues such as community health and safety, improved transport and traffic management and features like waterways and parks. The estimated population of the greater city and surrounding districts is 1,601,500.

Perth: Perth is the capital and primary regional focus for Western Australia and renowned for being a clean, friendly city offering a high quality of life. It is close to Indonesia and a focus for the Asia Pacific Region. The total area for the City of Perth is 8.75 km2. Its estimated Residential Population is 6,370 and estimated daytime population in CBD is 100,000. The estimated population of the greater Perth area is 1,341,900.

Adelaide: Founded in 1836 and the first local government to be established in Australia, the City of Adelaide has a residential population of 17,000 and a worker population of 89,000. The capital of South Australia, the City has an average of 100,000 visitors per day. The total population for greater Adelaide is just over 1 million residents, one in four of whom are immigrants representing 130 different ethnic backgrounds.

Darwin: As the capital of Australia's Northern Territory, Darwin is the centre of government and the major administrative and commercial centre. It is as close to Singapore and Manila as it is to Sydney and Melbourne and is increasingly making its mark as a major gateway with Asia. The estimated resident population of Darwin and nearby Palmerston is just over 107,000. Population projections by the Australian Bureau of Statistics suggest it is possible that the Northern Territory population could exceed 500,000 by the year 2057. The City of Darwin has more than 60 nationalities and some 76 ethnic groups. Just over one quarter of the Northern Territory population identify themselves as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Darwin has a tropical climate and renowned for it's relaxed lifestyle.

Sydney: Sydney Metropolitan is one of the largest cities in the world in terms of area. Reaching across 4000 km2, it is equal in size to London and almost double that of New York City. The City of Sydney local government area spans 6.18 km2, including the Central Business District. Approximately one-in-five Australians or 4 million people live in the Sydney Metropolitan area. The working population of the City of Sydney is 253,000.

Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world with people from 180 nations, speaking 140 languages. Sydney is the most popular tourist destination in Australia, attracting 4 million visitors annually.

Canberra /ACT: Canberra is the capital of Australia. The parliament is called the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory and is unique in Australia because it holds the power to look after both state and local functions of the Territory.

Located between Sydney and Melbourne the territory covers 2,400 km2 and has a population of 310,173. It is the political centre of Australia and has over 70 diplomatic embassies. It is also hosts 146 ethnic community organisations and the headquarters of several hundred significant National Associations.

Melbourne: Melbourne, the second largest city in Australia, has a population of 3.4 million which represents 14 percent of the nation's total population. Metropolitan Melbourne covers an area of 7,800 km2, containing 32 local governments. The City of Melbourne is Victoria's Capital City municipality and has responsibility for 36.5 km2 of the central city encompassing the Central Business District and surrounding inner suburbs.

Proudly pre-eminent in business, international trade, arts, entertainment, sport and major international events, the City of Melbourne is home to around 52,000 people and welcomes more than 550,000 workers, visitors and tourists every day.

Celebrating a rich multicultural diversity, Melbourne's residents combine to represent 110 nationalities and speak 151 languages. At all points of the city compass, ethnic and indigenous origins are revered and savoured, welcoming locals, enthralling visitors and flavouring the city's famous fare. One of the world's most liveable cities, Melbourne cultivates a strong sense of community and lifestyle.

Hobart: Tasmania is the Island State of Australia with an area of approximately 68,000 km2 (about the size of Ireland). Its capital, Hobart, is located in the south of the island and is the gateway to Tasmania's tourism industry, which accounts for 10.3 per cent of the jobs in the State. Tasmania receives 510,700 visitors per annum and boasts some of the cleanest air in the world.

The population of the Hobart metropolitan area is 194,000 or 41 per cent of the state population. Hobart is the 10th largest urban centre in Australia. It has 1.1 per cent of the Australian population. The population of Hobart municipality is 47,600.

Hobart is home to the State parliament and has special civic responsibilities in conjunction to the state government. It has signed a Capital City Partnership Agreement with the State Government as a means of progressing a number of issues relating to the social, environmental and economic development of Hobart and Tasmania. It represents a commitment from both parties to work together to achieve specific strategies and outcomes.

The Council of Capital City Lord Mayors

Charter: The CCCLM has a history of over 40 years. The origins of the organisation date back to 1957 when the Lord Mayors, meeting at the Melbourne Town Hall, agreed that a Capital Cities Exchange Bureau be established. Before that, meetings of Lord Mayors were on an ad hoc basis.

The documents available do not indicate when a name change occurred, but in 1963 the Lord Mayors, at a meeting in Hobart, agreed to the continuing operation of the Australian Capital Cities Secretariat. Each Council committed funding to cover the necessary operating costs of the Secretariat.

The 1982 the organisation adopted the new name of the Council of Capital City Lord Mayors. It was also in this year that the Annual Conference of the Australian Capital Cities Secretariat initiated a research study into the role of the organisation and to determine a set of strategies to achieve the organisation's priorities. Subsequently, a report was prepared for, and presented to the Secretariat in 1983 by Dr John Halligan. The report included the following Mission Statement and Objectives for the organisation:

Mission Statement

To provide a national corporate entity for the effective co-ordination and representation of the special interests of the Capital Cities of the Australian States and the Northern Territory in their relations with other spheres of government.

Objectives

• To achieve comprehensive recognition of the special roles and status of each Capital city.
• To advance the economic base of each Capital City.
• To obtain from the State Governments specific recognition of the territorial and functional authority of the Capital Cities within their respective areas.
• To obtain from the Commonwealth Government tangible recognition of the Capital Cities as integral and vital parts of the Australian system of government.
• To achieve tangible acknowledgement from both Commonwealth and State Governments of the special financial disabilities experienced by the Capital Cities.

United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development
Australian Council of Capital City Lord Mayors

Position Paper Introduction

Local governments and civic leaders are committed to playing a positive and meaningful role in the United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) and to working to create sustainable cities and communities. Significant movement towards sustainability has occurred at the local level in those places where local governments have acted on the goals and targets outlined in Agenda 21, the Rio Conventions, the Habitat Agenda and the Millennium Declaration. It is of vital importance to recognise and tap this great potential for accelerated implementation of sustainable development.

The Australian Council of Capital City Lord Mayors (CCCLM) has decided to take an active role in this process. The members of the CCCLM have undertaken a range of tasks, developed broad approaches to sustainability policy and implemented many practical activities to both demonstrate that such progress is possible, and also to invite active participation of partners.

A. CCCLM’s responses to international and national positions.

In this section, the CCCLM presents its views on some of the key issues being discussed by the national and international communities on sustainable development in the lead up to WSSD.

How can local government be strengthened as a key delivery agent of sustainable development?

In Australia: formally institutionalise the role of local government in resource management activities, recognising the major role that local governments play in “on the ground" policy development and implementation.

Institutional arrangements between the three levels of government (federal, state and local) in Australia have been a significant roadblock for progress on sustainable development.

On one level the roadblocks are the result of the federal nature of Australian governance, where legislative, regulatory and other legal powers are divided among the different government levels in varied and often changing ways. For example, in NSW, local governments have significant land use and development control, which is not the case in other states.

Moreover, different political allegiances and the context of policy-making have also lead to variations in legal powers. For example, state governments regularly wrest control of project approvals from local authorities when the project is deemed to be of statewide concern (eg major development proposals).

The CCCLM believes that there is now compelling evidence that local governments' role in the management of natural resources is sufficient to require redesign of these institutional arrangements. This redesign should focus on both providing appropriate legal powers and the mechanisms to achieve their implementation.

This opportunity differs nationally. The City of Melbourne, for example, considers that there are fewer institutional impediments to influencing the social capital component of sustainability. In Victoria, local governments are legislatively empowered to plan and co-ordinate services, such as health, education, welfare and community services to meet local needs. Acknowledging and working proactively within the current institutional arrangements enhance local government's influence. The City of Melbourne has developed The Social Planning Framework in response to the need to build community capacity, to plan, understand and respond to community and social issues, and to be accountable in terms of social impact and expenditure and valuing the integration of social, economic and environmental objectives. This framework enables the City of Melbourne to ensure a ‘whole of community' approach through planning in partnership with community, service providers, other local governments and relevant government departments.

Internationally: Develop frameworks for local governments to interact with each other internationally within the same institutions (such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation) and with a separate standing to nations.

It is critical that the same type of legitimation of local governments domestically is enacted at the international level. Indications that this is occurring are already evident. The Australian Local Government Association (ALGA), for example, is represented on the National Delegation to the Summit. This did not occur ten years ago at the Earth Summit in Rio.

The inclusion of local governments in international fora will require the support of major institutions as well as individual nations. Structurally, this may be problematic as many major institutions are funded by nations.

Such networks would provide the capital cities with a direct role in international affairs, and, provided that they focus on delivering real value, have the capacity to become more significant over the next few years.

How can co-operation between spheres of government be increased?

In Australia: recognise the proper and appropriate roles of local governments in the development and delivery of policy and resource and support the implementation of those roles.

State and federal governments currently consult local government on a wide range of issues, but very often the consultation is ad hoc or driven by a “respond to draft" approach. Paradoxically, local governments have a great deal to offer on policy development precisely because they are so involved with day to day implementation. Mechanisms need to be created to effectively harness the implementation skills of local government and manage the ambiguity of roles in the political context of the states and the federal government who have their own roles and responsibilities for wider geographic regions. These mechanisms could include formal involvement in policy creation (not just consultation as part of the stakeholders), focused resourcing of implementation plans and equal weighting for approaches at federal/ state and local government fora.

Internationally: require international agencies and encourage nation states to directly engage with local governments in both policy development and delivery.

This is a critical extension of the acknowledgement of the principle that implementers should be actively involved in the development of policy. This notion is applicable to a wide range of issues, especially global resource issues such as oceans, climate change and biodiversity. Local governments need to be actively involved in the creation of policy solutions. Currently, this occurs only in certain locations around specific issues, which means that only the “crisis-driven" situations are being addressed.

What are the new mechanisms needed to support sustainable development at the local level?

In Australia: a) popularisation of existing tools such as environmental management systems (EMS), Local Agenda 21, Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) and b) the development of mechanisms for integration, leadership development and institutional sustainability.

Implementation of the sustainable development agenda will require practical methods. These need to be developed within the local government community as well as within the context of local governance. There is a great deal of diversity as to these contexts, and therefore it is likely that there will be a need for a range of tools.

Similarly, we need more practical mechanisms to provide the kind of organisational stability that will enhance local governments' role in sustainable development. These mechanisms will:
• Increase the policy mechanisms for the integration of social, environmental and economic elements of sustainable development
• Develop the leadership potential at senior and middle management level in local governments
• Deepen the institutional sustainability of local governments through culture change approaches that are mainstream, focused on systemic change and operationalised through effective structures.

Internationally: develop culturally sensitive tools and mechanisms that encourage sustainable development, especially within a developing country context.

Capital cities can assist in this process through the range of international networks within which they operate. These networks can also assist in developing markets and deepening mutual exchange with the burgeoning sustainability industries in Australia and their counterparts in the region.

For example, the city of Brisbane is implementing their commitments under an agreement with Narashino, Japan to protect local wetlands, which provide habitats for migratory shore birds.

How can local government accelerate sustainable development and build a new culture of sustainability?

In Australia: ensure that local government structures are focused correctly on the sustainable development vision and exert focus and resources.

Fundamentally, this means positioning the notion of sustainable development as the key priority for all local communities, and therefore ensuring that the corporate structures, operations and budgets of the local government put this concept into practice.

There has been a lag between the unveiling of the new vision (that local governments have increasingly articulated since the early nineties) and the local government restructuring necessary to deliver on the vision. The result has been that few resources have been dedicated to those sustainable development activities that communities are requesting of their local governments. However, some councils have responded to this challenge and are restructuring their operations to achieve a more effective focus on sustainable development while still ensuring that their day to day activities meet the needs of residents and ratepayers right now.

Case Study: Adelaide’s Local Agenda 21
The City of Adelaide adopted its Environmental Management Plan - Local Agenda 21 in December 1996. The plan listed some 300 actions requiring implementation with responsibility allocated to functional areas across the organisation. It remains the basis of a wide range of programs that were initiated such as:
• Catchment management programs in the Torrens and Patawalonga Catchments
• Funding for bicycle projects and employment of a bicycle planning co-ordinator
• Installing solar lights in park land areas
• Monitoring and reducing herbicide use
• Expanding the existing energy minimisation programs
• Development of environmental management systems.

Internationally: support key organisations such as ICLEI to develop leading sustainability programs internationally, which focus on direct implementation within a longer-term strategic framework.

Capital cities have a direct role in helping to define the future directions of local governments. In their unique role in relation to State governments, capital cities can become significant advocates for potential policy directions of organisations, as well as implementers of national and international frameworks.

What are the most pressing issues nationally and internationally?

In Australia:a) integration of environmental, economic and social approaches to local sustainability and b) development of cross-sectoral partnerships in local communities.

Assessment of seemingly disparate objectives is a key element of the work that councils routinely do. Such integrated assessments are vital if we are to assess our performance against key sustainability indicators. Integration is also a basic requirement for effective approaches to sustainable development. We have already discussed the need for tools to achieve this, and the CCCLM's role in meeting this need. There is also a need to integrate the many programs that councils adopt across the country in order to achieve this, so that councils are not trying to meet many different program needs simultaneously.

The notion of cross-sectoral partnerships as a method for implementing Agenda 21 will be highlighted at the Summit. This is primarily because they allow the respective partners to use their strengths for the collective benefit of sustainability. Local governments are accustomed to acting as facilitators and managers of different stakeholders and interests, and therefore have a large role to play in this important issue.

Cross-sectoral partnerships play a significant role in creating an inclusive and socially robust community. The CCCLM supports and contributes to a number of such partnerships.

Case Study: Clean Harbour Partners
The City of Sydney has developed a partnership program with businesses and building managers in the City to increase the awareness of stormwater pollution issues and the implementation of pollution abatement strategies. The Clean Harbour Partners program supplies educational materials, stencils, publications and subsidies on ashtrays to enlisted partners. In return, the partners sign a memorandum of understanding, and undertake an environmental assessment of their activities.

Internationally: need to work co-operatively with developing countries to ensure that sustainable development is seen as a joint approach, requiring cities to cities networks and public / private partnerships. Building upon the partnership approach, it is expected that the next decade of sustainable development will be focused on implementation through partnerships.

The City of Melbourne, for example, is looking to further strengthen some key international frameworks with which it participates, including:
• Business Partnership Cities
• APEC
• Sister Cities
• ICLEI networks.

These frameworks provide a direct insight into international relations and relationships that will have a major impact over the coming years. Although the real value of many these relationships have not been fully maximised these networks are already providing many benefits in terms of shared learning, mutual partnerships, staff development opportunities, and positioning the cities for future developments.

Most Australian Capital Cities are actively engaged in sister city relationships:

Brisbane ’s sister cities:
• Kobe, Japan
• Auckland, New Zealand
• Shenzhen, China
• Semarang, Indonesia
• Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Darwin ’s sister cities:
• Ambon, Indonesia
• Anchorage, USA
• Haikou, China
• Kalymnos, Greece
• Milikapiti, Melville Island

Adelaide ’s sister cities:
• Austin, USA
• Himeji, Japan
• Christchurch, New Zealand
• George Town, Malaysia

Hobart ’s sister cities:
• L'Aquila, Italy
• Yaizu, Japan

Melbourne ’s sister cities:
• Boston, USA
• Tianjin, China
• Osaka, Japan
• St Petersburg, Russia
• Thessaloniki, Greece

Perth ’s sister cities:
• Houston, USA
• Kagoshima, Japan
• San Diego, USA
• Nanjing, China
• Taipei, Taiwan

Sydney ’s sister cities:
• San Francisco, USA
• Nagoya, Japan
• Wellington, New Zealand
• Portsmouth, England
• Guangzhou, China
• Florence, Italy

What are the current gaps in the debate?

In Australia: removal of barriers to sustainability, such as national competition policy (and its undifferentiated impact on local communities), national resource pricing policies and the lack of institutional status of local governments.

A current gap in the debate is the absence of the debate itself – especially in the senior decision making spheres of Australian public life. Too little of the intellectual debate focuses on these barriers and practical ways to reduce them. It would be a major step forwards if we ensured that there were specific places for the debate to be enacted.

The focus in Australia should be on removal of barriers so that the long-term, innovative strategic approaches to sustainable development abounding in local government are allowed to flourish. Undiscussed barriers so far include the impact of competition policy on the “triple bottom line", especially in the capacity for local communities to identify social elements to their purchasing policies. Inclusion of such matters is possible and is now more timely than ever. Similarly, under-pricing of natural resources which is a key undercurrent to the waste management debate, continues to make the economics of recycling a significant disincentive for continued expansion into new products and new regions.

Internationally: direct advocacy by cities at the international level, which feeds directly into the decision-making processes.

Cities are represented at the international level by many different voluntary associations and professional organisations including the International
Union for Local Authorities and ICLEI. Cities rarely get a chance to advocate directly for themselves except through these organisations.
This is a question that requires solutions both in the host nations and in the international agencies and organisations that create and implement sustainable development policy.

B. The unique role of the capital city – opportunities and constraints

What is the key role of the capital city in progressing sustainable development?

If we follow the notion that progressing sustainability will require demonstrated implementation and cross-sectoral partnerships, then the key roles of capital cities become:
• Implementing actions, which improve the level of sustainability within the normal core business of cities.
• Developing partnerships across private and public sectors and both local and more distant regions. One example is Sydney's green Olympics, an event during which significant energy efficient infrastructure was developed through a partnership with the private building sector.

Case Study: Cities for Climate Protection™ ((CCP ™)
In this international climate change program, all members of the CCCLM except for one, are active participants. Three (Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane) have achieved Milestone Five in the Australian campaign.
Cities for Climate Protection™ (CCP™) is an international Campaign developed by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) that empowers local governments to cut greenhouse gas emissions by providing a strategic milestone framework combined with:
• Technical support and training workshops
• Political and media support
• Access to a range of additional assistance packages and
• Multiple networking opportunities across local government and other potential greenhouse abatement partners.
CCP™ is the only local government program delivered by a Local Government Association that can demonstrate greenhouse gas abatement by its participant councils.
CCP™ has demonstrated results as this international campaign has over 440 local governments from around the world participating. Globally there are campaigns at different stages in Australia, Canada, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. As of July 2002 there are 150 Australian councils, covering over 60% of Australia's population, actively pursuing greenhouse gas abatement through this campaign.

How might Australian capital cities make a unique contribution nationally and internationally?

Australian capital cities have a special contribution in their relationships with:
• Other cities that make up the larger metropolitan regions
• State governments in delivering regional and state-based sustainability outcomes
• Other cities in our wider region, the Asia Pacific
• Other sectors, especially the growing private sector that is focused on new sustainability industries.

What are the constraints?

Key constraints include:
• The lack of a common political understanding of the different parties, especially across municipal borders
• Different budget responsibilities and the difficulty of aligning these different responsibilities for joint action by different parties
• Limits to regulatory powers which means that one party may not be able to take effective action
• The diversity of local government powers across states, which sometimes restricts the capacity of local governments to benchmark and develop similar practices around the country
• Potential competition between capital cities for sustainable industries, especially in the early and slower growth phase of these industries.

What future role might capital cities play in sustainable development in Australia?

Australia's capital cities could develop a leadership role in sustainable development through:
* Playing a key role in the development and ongoing implementation of local government's approach to sustainable development as a sector, especially in relation to marshalling collective and regional responses

o major issues
* Acting as a focus for cross-sectoral approaches such as the expansion
of the relationship between the City of Melbourne and the Property Council of Australia
* Working with other adjacent municipalities to promote regional, river catchment and ecosystem based activities, such as the SEQROC approach to the Moreton Bay catchment.

What possible relationships might Australian capital cities build with cities in the developed and developing world?

Australian capital cities could:
• Add a sustainability focus to existing networks and relationships such as the well-established sister cities movement, which is actively canvassing more methods of adding value to their networks
• Develop new sustainability focused relationships with other capital city networks in our region such as CityNet, ICLEI and Metropolis in order to build on existing networks in our immediate region and use these to exchange good sustainable development practice
• Partner with key developing countries in our region to assist the sustainable development process and develop mutual benefits, especially in relation to developing markets for sustainability industries and leveraging the knowledge and experience that has been developed in our capital cities.

What sort of relationship might capital cities build with the Commonwealth government to progress sustainable development?

Capital cities could:
a) Focus on continuing their own domestic agendas and invite the Commonwealth government to assist them; such as the significant work that local governments are implementing in relation to climate change, which is currently happening with Commonwealth government resources and could be supported even further.
b) Identify appropriate Commonwealth agendas and implement these within the capital city boundaries and in their region. The issue of intergenerational equity, for example, has been subject to recent Commonwealth scrutiny and which has significant implementation issues relating to local delivery of services.
c) Develop leading edge sustainability agendas and invite the Commonwealth government to become a partner with the capital cities.
The complexity of integrating a range of sustainability approaches, which is almost unmanageable at the national level, is possible (or at least more feasible) at the local level and may have useful lessons for national governments.

C. Recommendations

Compilation of key recommendations for change and the CCCLM's desired outcomes from the Summit.
a) National agreements on sustainable development visions, approaches, targets, resources and timelines.
b) Close alignment of the views of the Australian National Delegation with the ALGA and the CCCLM on the issues that arise throughout the Summit, but especially on the above issues.
c) Development of communities of interest by the CCCLM with other cities both within Australia and throughout the world, and focusing on sustainability as a core issue with existing and new relationships.
d) Further development of the CCCLM's leadership role in sustainability in Australia and the region through follow up of the outcomes of the Local Government Session and other events at Johannesburg.
e) Specifically, marketing of the CCCLM's achievements and further learning of world's best practice in climate, water and triple bottom line methodologies internationally and at all levels of government.
f) Recognition of the importance of good local governance in creating sustainable communities.
g) Recognition of the urban dimension of sustainable development and the interdependence of urban and rural areas.
h) Recognition of the role of local governments in developing partnerships for sustainable development, working with national governments, international agencies and the private sector.
i) Development of the opportunities to promote and encourage diversified action at the local level.
j) Creation of a range of fora to feed collective and regional responses from local government to major issues.

The City of Melbourne wishes to acknowledge the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives assistance in preparing this position paper.

FURTHER INFORMATION:

 

Cool Green Tip Of The Week -

23 April 2017: Only those who decline to scramble up the career ladder are interesting as human beings. Nothing is more boring than a man with a career: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918 -1956.

This site is written, authorised and maintained by David Risstrom , 377 Little Bourke St. Melbourne, Australiaand had more than 1,003,082 visitors and 3,052,017 hits when updated on Sun 23 April 2017.